- GRADIENT FILL
- The printing/computer graphics term that may be used when a charge, or a flag's field,
is composed of two or more different colours that gradually merge into each other – fountain fill.
Badge and Flag of Dominica 1955 – 1965 (fotw): Flag of the Christlich-Soziale Union, Bavaria, Germany
(fotw); Flag of Lista di Pietro - Italia dei Valori (fotw); Flag of L'Ulivo, Italy (fotw)
Please note that a gradient fill is not found in heraldry and is very
rarely employed in classic flag design, but may be seen on some modern (particularly commercial
and especially printed) flags.
- GRADIATED STRIPES
- See ‘optical proportions’.
Current Presidential Flag of France (fotw)
- GRAND (or GREAT) QUARTER
- The heraldic term used to describe that section of a shield or banner of arms that is further subdivided
by being impaled or quartered, and generally employed when one or more sets of quartered, quarterly or impaled
arms are displayed with another either so divided or otherwise (see also ‘impaled’,
Royal Standard 1603 – 1649 1660 – 1707, UK (fotw); Standard of HM Queen Mary of Teck 1867 - 1953, UK (Klaus-Michael
Schneider); National Arms and State Flag, Spain 1938 – 1945 (fotw)
- GRAND UNION
- See ‘continental colors’.
Grand Union/Continental Colours 1775 – 1777, US (fotw)
- GRAND-DUCAL BONNET (CORONET or HAT)
- See ‘coronet 2)’.
Lesser Arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (fotw)
- GRAPEVINE CROSS
- see 'St. Nino's cross'
Flag of Ninotsminda, Georgia (fotw)
- GRAVE DECORATION FLAG
- see 'memorial flag'
- GREAT BANNER
- The term, now obsolete, for a banner showing all the quarterings of a deceased
person's coat of arms for use at that person's funeral (see also
‘achievement of arms 2)’,
‘coat of arms 2)’,
and ‘livery banner’).
Please note that according to English heraldry the sizes of a
great banner were originally as follows: that of an Emperor; six feet square, a King; five
feet square. a Prince or Duke; four feet square, a Marquis, Earl, Viscount, Baron, and
Knight-baronet; three feet square.
- GREAT LUMINARY PATTERN
- See ‘great star flags’.
Great Luminary/Star Pattern of 34 Stars (1861), US (fotw)
- GREAT STANDARD
- A term, now obsolete, for the Scottish heraldic standard as flown from a fixed
staff, and there are indications that it was the largest of three sizes (see also
‘standard 5)’, and
Standard of the Laird of Clan Arbuthnott (The Flag Center)
- GREAT STAR FLAGS
- The term used for those US national flags whose canton shows the stars
arranged in the form of a single larger star, and in unofficial use
(particularly – but not exclusively - upon merchant vessels) from 1818 until
c1865 - the great luminary pattern (see also ‘Betsy Ross flag’,
‘star-spangled banner’ and
‘stars and stripes’).
Great Star Patterns of 20,
33 Stars (1818, 1837
& 1859), US
- GREAT UNION
- 1) In UK usage, the pattern of Union Flag displayed by military colours and
originally authorized on 30 August 1900 (see also
‘colours 2)’ and
‘union jack 1)’).
- 2) In US usage, a term referring to the 1775 pattern of national flag and
occasionally used in place of grand union or continental colours – see
The Great Union, UK (fotw)
- GREATER ARMS
- See under ‘arms’.
Greater Arms of Bremen, Germany and of
- GREEK CROSS
- The term for a cross whose four arms are straight-sided and of equal length, and which
may, or may not, extend to edges of the flag, panel or canton it occupies (see also
2)’ and ‘cross-couped’ in ‘appendix VIII’).
From left: Example, Naval Jack, Greece (otw); National Flag of Switzerland (fotw)
- GRIDIRON FLAG
- IIn UK usage a term, now obsolete, for the red and white striped flag of the Honourable East India
Company. This flag was introduced as an ensign c1600 and worn as such outside home waters from c1676–1824,
fter which it was flown as a jack by vessels of the Bombay Marine until 1863 (see also ‘continental olours’,
From left: HEIC Flags, England c1600–1707; UK 1707–1801; UK 1801-1864 (fotw)
a) Thirteen is the usual number of stripes shown, but that nine or
eleven are occasionally seen in contemporary flag books.
b) Information suggests the existence of a gridiron flag bearing a Cross of St
George overall (as illustrated below), and that it was worn by armed vessels of the HIEC,
however, no further details can be confirmed at this present time.
Flag of the HIEC bearing a Cross of St George c1820 (Pete Loeser & Željko Heimer)
- GRINDSTONE (or GRIND-WHEEL)
- See ‘millstone’.
Záříčí, Czech Republic (fotw)
Please note that a grindstone can also be a wheel upon which knives etc. are sharpened, and that such an implement has not - as far as is known - yet appeared on flags.
- 1) A hole or eyelet, reinforced by stitching or an inserted metal ring, usually
found at both ends of the heading on the hoist of a flag, through which clips,
attached to the halyard pass - see ‘Inglefield clip’
(also ‘Appendix I’,
‘clip and grommet’,
- 2) In naval heraldry the rope decoration that often surrounds a ship's badge
- sometimes (and incorrectly) referred to as a ship's crest - see
‘ship's crest’ (see also
Please note with regard to 1) that Lt (later Admiral) Edward Inglefield RN patented this system in 1890.
- GROMMET AND CLIP
- See ‘clip and grommet’.
- See ‘field’.
- GROUP COMMAND PENNANT
- See ‘command pennant’.
Group Command Pennant, Spain (fotw)
- GRUMPHION (or GRUMPHEON)
- A Scottish term, now obsolete, for a small funeral flag bearing a death's
- See ‘Appendix V’.
Royal Banner of Denmark c1300 (fotw)
- GUBERNATORIAL FLAG
- In particularly (but not exclusively) US usage, a flag which symbolizes the
office of governor.
Flag of the Governor of Hawaii, US (fotw); Flag of the
Governor of Michigan, US (fotw); Flag of the
Governor of Nevada. US (fotw)
- GUEST ON BOARD FLAG (or GUEST FLAG)
- In US usage the practice, almost certainly obsolete, of flying a blue flag with
a white descending diagonal stripe from the starboard yardarm (or spreader) of a
pleasure vessel when a guest is on board but the owner is absent (see also
‘owner absent flag’ and
Guest on Board Flag, US (fotw)
- 1) In US and some other military usage, a small, generally swallow-tailed
flag used by army formations below battalion level - company, battery, troop,
platoon, detachment – and at group level in the air force (but see also
‘fanion 2)’ and
- 2) In UK and some other military usage, the swallow-tailed flag (sometimes
double-tailed descate, descate or other variations) that is the cavalry equivalent of an infantry
regimental colour, and still displayed on fighting vehicles by their successors
(see also ‘colour 2)’,
‘hussar cut’ and
- 3) A Scottish flag 2.40m long, tapering to a rounded (or lanceolate) fly, it
has a body in livery colours, with the owner's crest or badge at the hoist and
his motto in the fly, and is used by lairds who have a following but are not peers
or feudal barons – see ‘pennon 3)’
(also ‘badge in heraldry’,
- 4) Generically, any small swallow-tailed flag.
Guidon of the Blues and Royals, UK (Graham Bartram)
Please note, some sources suggest that the term
is derived from guide-homme (guide-man), but this remains unproven, and the similarity
with the medieval terms ‘geton’, ‘giton’ or ‘gytton’ cannot be ignored.
- GUL(S) (or GULLS)
- A term used to describe the individual segment or segments of a geometric carpet
design and usually employed to describe those on the national flag of Turkmenistan.
National Flag of Turkmenistan (fotw)
- A heraldic term for the colour red (see also ‘Appendix III’
and ‘rule of tincture’).
- GUN SALUTE
- 1) A form of saluting, ashore and afloat, in which 21 blank rounds are fired
by artillery or naval guns to honour a country or its flag.
- 2) A form of saluting in which an appropriate number of guns are fired to
honour a head of state, other dignitary, or a senior officer, or the flag representing
him (see also ‘broad pennant’,
‘distinguishing flag 1)’,
‘flag of command’,
‘rank flag 1)’).
a) In an exchange of such salutes,
naval officers receive the number of guns appropriate to their rank - that is
an Admiral of the Fleet/five star admiral/grand admiral - 19 guns; Admiral -
17 guns; Vice Admiral - 15 guns; Rear Admiral – 13 guns, whilst a Commodore
receives 11 guns and a Captain only seven.
In some countries a celebratory
salute of as many as 101 guns may be fired at the birth of a royal heir or other
occasion of national celebration (example--50 guns at noon on 4 July at US Army
posts), and that minute guns (that is one shot fired every minute) may be fired
in connection with the death or funeral of a person entitled to a gun salute.
- A medieval term, now obsolete, for a gonfanon (see ‘gonfanon’).
- GUTTÉ (or GUTTY)
- See ‘gouttes’.
Flag of Samnanger, Norway (fotw)
- The heraldic term for when the field of a flag or shield is divided into
sectors (called gyrons or girons) radiating from or near the centre of the
flag or shield – typically eight in heraldic practice, but an undetermined
number on flags – Geronny or Gironné. See ‘radiant’
plus ‘cross gyronny’ (and compare with
‘radiating’, ‘sector(s) 1)’, ‘sectored 2)’ and
See supplemental note
From left: Fafe, Portugal (Sérgio Horta); Naval Jack of the Netherlands (CS);
Flag of Ceuta, Spain (fotw)
- GYRONNY CROSS
- See ‘cross gyronny’ in ‘appendix VIII’
Flag of Eelde, The Netherlands (fotw)
- GYRONNY WAVY
- See ‘flammes’.
Flag of Mulhouse, Germany 1770 – 1798 (fotw)
- See ‘gyronny’.
Flag of Balneário Camboriú, Brazil (fotw)